English
聯系我們
網站地圖
郵箱
舊版回顧



“嫦娥”奔月的“煩惱” 太空中存在的“腐蝕”問題

文章來源:金屬研究所   發布時間:2019-04-23  【字號:     】  

  浩瀚無垠的宇宙中蘊藏著許多未知的奧秘,它仿佛擁有著巨大的魔力,吸引著人類不斷探索。月球,是人類太空探險的第一步。但由于潮汐鎖定現象,月球圍繞地球的公轉周期與其自轉周期相同,導致人類在地球上始終只能觀測到月球的“正面”。因此,多年以來,人類對月球背面的了解非常有限。直到2019年1月3日,嫦娥四號探測器自主著陸月球背面的馮·卡門撞擊坑內,實現人類首次月背軟著陸,并傳回第一張月球背面的近距離影像。

  但“嫦娥”的奔月之旅其實并不輕松,甚至可謂是困難重重。其中,太空中材料的腐蝕就是令科學家們比較頭疼的問題。

  說到腐蝕,大家可能并不陌生,因為在我們生活中,它每時每刻都在發生。例如:廚房鐵鍋的生銹,碳酸飲料對牙齒的腐蝕,街道護欄的風化開裂等等。可以說,腐蝕無時無刻不在影響著我們的生活。但有人可能會問,太空既然是高真空環境、沒有水的存在,航天器應該不會像地球上那樣腐蝕吧?但令人意想不到的是,與“溫順”的地球環境相比,真實的太空對航天器的“外衣”甚至威脅更大。

  舉一個真實的例子,“和平號”空間站作為美俄國際空間站合作計劃的一部分,是蘇聯建造的第一個軌道空間站(蘇聯解體后歸俄羅斯)。據統計,它實際在軌工作的十多年時間里,共發生近2000處故障,其中70%的外體遭到腐蝕。

  那么,究竟是什么原因造成太空中航天材料的腐蝕失效呢?“嫦娥”奔月途中,到底會面臨怎樣嚴峻的考驗呢?我們首先從太空中的環境說起。

  其實,太空的真實環境遠沒有科幻電影中描述的那般美好,到處都存在著人類肉眼所看不見的宇宙輻射。它既包括宇宙大爆炸后所殘留的熱輻射,也包括其他天體向外釋放的電磁波、高能粒子甚至是宇宙射線。它們對人體的危害可以說是致命的。但由于地球磁場與大氣層對宇宙輻射的偏折和吸收作用,才能保證人類在地球上的正常生活。可是,一旦脫離兩者的保護,完全暴露在這種強輻射環境中,即便是穿著厚重的宇航服,也不能完全避免宇宙輻射對人體的傷害。當然,面對太空中如此高強度的輻射,航天器也會“深受其害”。

  其中,太陽所釋放的紫外線輻射是引起航天器腐蝕失效的原因之一。盡管紫外線只占太陽光的5%左右,但是能量卻很大。太空中,由于缺少地球磁場及大氣層的“保護屏障”,航天器表面的高分子材料在吸收紫外線后會引發聚合物的自我氧化、降解。另外,紫外線中的單個光子所具有的能量足以破壞聚合物間的化學鍵,使其斷裂、交聯,從而導致聚合物材料性能的急劇下降。因此,為了盡可能的削弱宇宙輻射對航天器的影響,人類航天任務的發射甚至會刻意避開太陽耀斑活動頻繁的時間周期。

  此外,當航天器剛剛脫離地球表面大氣層的保護,首先接觸的便是低地球軌道環境(距離地球200-700km),該區域所處的殘余大氣中,氧含量約占總組分的80%。眾所周知,氧元素是造成材料腐蝕加速的重要條件。而在太陽短波輻射的光致分解作用下,氧分子轉變為高活性的原子氧,由于處于高真空及極低的氣體總壓狀態下,氧原子與其他粒子發生碰撞的幾率很小,導致氧原子很難再次復合成分子態。當高速運行的航天器與原子氧發生劇烈的摩擦、碰撞時,航天器表面的聚合物材料會發生高溫氧化反應,使其電學、光學以及機械性能等方面發生退化,甚至會引起明顯的剝蝕效應,嚴重影響航天器的運行安全。

  在“嫦娥”的太空旅行中,除了要面臨宇宙輻射及原子氧的威脅外,還需要接受極為“苛刻”的溫度挑戰。自宇宙大爆炸起,太空中的溫度便開始逐漸降低,在經歷了150多億年的演變后,目前的太空正處于極寒的環境中,平均溫度只有約-270.3℃。并且,真空環境中,由于缺少空氣的傳熱和散熱,航天器表面受陽光直接照射的一面,其溫度將高達100℃以上,而陽光照射不到的一面,溫度則可低至-200℃。這種極端的溫度條件和大幅度的冷熱交變會影響材料的應力,并可能造成航天器“外衣”的斷裂、分層甚至脆化,縮短其安全服役壽命。

  通過上面的介紹,我們可以發現,在如此復雜的太空環境中,航天器的腐蝕根本無法避免。并且,有關數據顯示,一架航天飛機的維修成本甚至遠高于其制作成本和發射成本。因此,采用科學的手段抑制航天器在太空中的腐蝕問題勢在必行。

  首先便是選擇和發展耐熱、耐極低溫、耐熱震、抗疲勞、抗腐蝕的高性能材料,世界各國的科學家也正為此努力探索。此外,結合不同材料的用途及其實際服役環境,采用合適的表面處理技術顯得更為重要。因為性能優異的防護涂層不僅可以提高航天材料的功能性,包括耐高溫、隔熱、抗腐蝕、抗氧化、抗輻射等,同時也可以延長航天器的使用壽命,節省維修成本。然而,與地面裝備表面防護不同的是,由于有機涂層在真空環境中會出現放氣、老化脫落等一系列問題,航天材料一般不會使用有機涂層進行防腐,而主要采用的表面技術包括化學/電化學沉積、化學/電化學氧化、無機涂層以及特種薄膜制備等等。

  鎂合金,作為地球上最輕的金屬結構材料,擁有比強度高、導電性強、電磁屏蔽性好等優點,在航天領域的使用上具有先天的優勢。為了實現減重的目的,我們熟知的神州、天宮、嫦娥等系列航天器中,均大量使用鎂合金。

  以此次發射的“嫦娥四號”探測器為例,其中,探月雷達、月球車巡視器、著陸器上許多重要電子設備的箱體結構所采用的就是鎂合金,主要利用其減重、導電及優異的電磁屏蔽性能,可以有效地削弱外界電磁場對核心電路系統的干擾。但鎂合金化學性質活潑,耐蝕性差,甚至在地面存放期間便會出現嚴重的腐蝕。因此,必須采用合理的表面處理方式,在滿足其導電性及電磁屏蔽性能的基礎上,有效提高其耐腐蝕能力。

  中國科學院金屬研究所在這方面做了很多工作,科研團隊自主研發的鎂合金鍍層具有防腐、導電、電磁屏蔽等多功能性,滿足了航天器若干的使用要求,并在天宮、嫦娥等多個型號的航天器上使用。

  “嫦娥”的奔月成功只是人類探索太空的階段性勝利,宇宙中仍有無數未知的奧秘等待著人類去揭曉。在未來的探索道路中,可能會暴露出更多太空中的“腐蝕”問題。讓我們攜手并進,砥礪前行,一步一步追尋屬于我們的“太空夢”。




(責任編輯:侯茜)

附件:

專題推薦

相關新聞


© 1996 - 中國科學院 版權所有 京ICP備05002857號  京公網安備110402500047號  聯系我們

地址:北京市三里河路52號 郵編:100864

彩609www.c6093.com www.313750.com | 812109.com | www.682234.com | www.76585.cc | www.282740.com | www.789060.com | www.86558.cc | www.414183.com | 358923.com | cp340.cc | 894340.com | 793951.com | www.088955.com | 982409.com | www.57qi.com | 893628.com | www.987133.com | 105590.com | www.oh61.com | www.8235.biz | www.85689.com | www.678009.com | www.3764.vip | www.26mq.com | www.0fq.com | 易盈彩票www.7793z.com | www.531290.com | www.212813.com | www.139933.com | 954503.com | www.053685.com | www.503198.com | www.514563.com | www.293627.com | www.378322.com | www.741507.com | www.32597.cc | www.4369.cm | www.8747.cn | 799307.com | www.dk1.cc | www.02vc.com | 577654.com | www.086051.com | www.85660.cc | www.029360.com | www.004971.com | 640023.com | www.012252.com | www.497949.com | www.693503.com | www.887530.com | www.967108.com | www.06897.cc | www.8161.pw | www.030656.com | www.722915.com | www.881691.com | www.76727.cc | www.345046.com | 313345.com | 5216.me | www.2456.com | www.3831.biz | 327037.com | 659306.com | www.36ji.com | www.024990.com | 61539.cc | 117159.com | www.41438.com | www.412969.com | www.587595.com | www.03se.com | www.717948.com | www.878545.com | www.967826.com | 833898.com | 485454.com | 863487.com | 199260.com | www.3792.wang | www.30177.cc | 845690.com | www.kf89.com | www.685676.com | www.880392.com | 560280.com | www.e88.cc | www.14889.com | www.128802.com | www.248689.com | www.759543.com | 884185.com | www.692087.com | www.845338.com | www.cp9579.com | www.365498.cc | qw94.com--136edf.com | www.8119.in | www.337794.com | www.wp67.com | 708357.com | www.913797.com | www.990659.com | 004121.com | 幸运彩票www.874966.com | www.062426.com | www.680661.com | www.806138.com | www.24is.com | www.kd93.com | www.9134.com | www.886288.com | www.927845.com | www.921587.com | www.958091.com | 338629.com | www.66yx.cc | www.6656.site | www.259003.com | 1382.com | www.7083.biz | www.3085.org | www.054454.com | 4585.biz | www.630111.cc | www.63sz.com | www.593108.com | www.480848.com | www.881239.com | www.855539.com | www.ou19.com | www.0360.cc | www.44407.cc | www.39376.com | www.006481.com | 021963.com | www.cp262.com | 644518.com | www.3915.org | www.070838.com | www.65037.com | www.473609.com | www.594342.com | www.30hd.com | 035828.com | www.cw08.com | www.895922.com | www.937855.com | 华彩www.71399p.com | uf59.com | www.147542.com | www.295234.cc | www.238339.com | www.776547.com | www.505842.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.220875.com | www.oi01.com | www.fk89.com | www.824206.com | 13ns.com | www.9999.in | www.879249.com | www.197291.com | www.940399.com | 凤凰彩票www.5091n.com | www.51640.com | www.304738.com | www.659554.com | www.804221.com | www.879325.com | www.960039.com | www.986730.com | www.332612.com | www.5765.biz | www.760094.com | www.353824.com | www.457913.com | www.6ck.cc | www.96ga.com | www.215665.com | www.260032.com | www.997402.com | 179716.com | www.848771.com | www.0459.cn | www.476479.com | www.130376.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.106572.com | www.11aw.com | www.323207.com | www.100176.com | 686727.com | C9999www.318548.com | www.20jz.com | www.756270.com | www.723454.com | 亚洲www.938906.com | www.597666.cc | www.731952.com | www.661462.com | www.5389.cm | www.307628.com | 401406.com | fc53.com | www.526175.com | www.062304.com | 885948.cc | 595902.com | 博乐彩票www.567306.com | 500彩票www.649677.com | www.79rw.com | www.fa72.com | www.870719.com | www.4912.cc | www.4787.xyz | www.959064.com | 628675.com | www.0291.cn | www.537501.com | www.495465.com | www.914492.com | www.172215.com | www.726647.com | www.55qv.com | www.2540.win | www.707050.com | 彩票A8www.257n.com | www.22de.com | www.950534.com | 743488.com | www.387888.com | www.947256.com | www.081822.com | 爱彩www.009ac.com | 062155.com | www.581057.com | www.3542.vip | www.681308.com | 776445.com | www.31593.com | 399667.com | 890006.com | www.6171.in | www.221809.com | www.318856.com | www.836693.com | 773772.com | www.no73.com | www.698422.com | 50fv.com | 82nf.com | www.ar2.com | www.48rw.com | www.1898.bid | www.443855.com | 819948.com | www.237124.com | www.309520.com | www.450060.com | www.95om.com | www.380311.com | www.840342.com | www.1667.net | www.93mo.com | www.30sa.com | www.261967.com | www.63hs.com | www.91ex.com | www.21km.cc | www.497890.com | 盈彩www.yc7701.com | www.373525.com | 439646.com | www.cp5773.com | www.44155.com | www.0373.net | www.94487.com | www.247161.com | www.555294.com | www.170509.com | www.310342.com | 368842.com | www.4294.biz | www.f47.loan | www.777481.com | www.751113.com | www.892268.com | www.142502.com | 9cs.cc | www.01082.com | www.5044.net | www.35af.com | www.00dr.com | www.182911.com | www.053993.com | www.696616.com | 834511.com | 乐博彩票www.021067.com | www.630722.com | www.828633.com | 114648.com | www.028041.com | www.47890.com | www.318163.com | www.80815.cc | www.883731.com | www.228345.com | 彩票58www.585560.com | www.971993.com | www.ky38.com | www.886372.com | www.225377.com | 502407.com | www.615913.com | www.u89.shop | www.355383.com | 凤凰彩票www.77802o.com | www.971586.com | 267320.com | www.562237.com | www.67gp.com | www.549736.com | www.67893.com | www.318172.com | www.641991.com | www.866117.com | www.dq69.com | www.tb07.com | 博通彩票www.907994.com | 095110.com | www.793.win | www.77167.cc | www.932361.com | www.695839.com | www.133258.com | www.3794.win | www.mm68.cc | www.231300.cc | www.7955.wang | www.020464.com | www.047521.com | www.217898.com | www.937521.com | www.944904.com | www.906515.com | www.876830.com | www.808297.com | www.452897.com | www.37173.cc | www.448760.com | www.45pi.com | www.78gl.com | www.978430.com | 519652.com | www.035308.com | www.637222.com | www.78890.cc | www.67483.com | www.49ty.com | www.87ur.cc | www.270477.com | www.569307.com | www.007009.com | www.791817.com | www.150607.com | www.512317.com | www.571909.com | 655251.com | www.256131.com | www.691937.com | 485476.com | www.210692.com | www.829677.com | 572227.cc | 028843.com | www.183130.com | 090386.com | www.8433.vip | www.595107.com | www.509303.com | www.585654.com | www.js50.cc | www.77.vip | www.2327.org | www.923711.com | www.81338.com | www.13yv.com | www.1693.org | www.310418.com | www.092299.com | www.219018.com | www.556438.com | 全民彩票www.38381.cc | 497421.com | www.gu72.com | www.521241.com | www.58si.com | www.57mm.com | www.474970.com | www.340300.com | www.11658.cc | www.994684.com | www.60051.cc | www.156158.cc | www.453163.com | www.316766.com | www.089843.com | www.103618.com | www.723750.com | www.245322.com | www.109158.com | www.31456.cc | www.379555.com | 052365.com | www.05959.cc | www.82933.com | www.796181.com | 020299.com | www.066131.com | www.3238.xyz | www.832.in | www.6090.cn | www.803310.com | www.949748.com | www.872914.com | www.831019.com | www.s10.in | www.626298.com | www.998808.cc | www.973134.com | www.717566.com | www.217522.com | www.171098.com | 553982.com | www.442381.com | www.871551.com | www.ir32.com | 586021.com | www.6988.hk | 大众彩票www.785579.com | www.761881.com | www.df05.com | www.790532.com | www.942838.com | www.960498.com | www.960323.com | www.922102.com | www.531762.com | www.ow78.com | 579012.com | 947283.com | www.yo23.com | www.996893.com | www.960578.com | 787257.com | www.311446.com | 272512.com | 693258.com | www.899050.com | www.jy95.com | www.91505.com | www.22353.cc | www.768402.com | www.434143.com | www.902049.com | www.752361.com | www.yd94.com | www.0979.date | www.aj99.com | www.8708.top | www.2496.org | 054501.com | 425315.com | www.159836.com | www.184838.com | www.y78.org | www.271098.com | www.857119.com | 720160.com | www.984373.com | 979831.com | www.020454.com | 3950.org | www.072733.com | www.628218.com | www.710654.com | www.23oi.com | www.fc7.com | 040138.cc | 福彩天下www.fcff1.com | 500彩票www.501342.com | www.cai6433.com | 711993.com | 彩世界www.33csj.com | www.327929.com | www.766623.com | www.906031.com | www.755511.com | www.743101.com | www.hg13.com | www.oc49.com | www.974668.com | www.885153.com | www.40662.com | www.845400.com | www.772124.com | www.51631.cc | 200497.com | www.81iv.com | 562280.com | 954836.com | www.074368.com | www.235252.cc | www.336773.com | www.245028.com | www.305468.com | www.602758.com | 361191.com | www.53pj.cc | www.029546.com | www.35341.com | www.629137.com | www.424013.com | www.691636.com | www.549814.com | www.154342.com | www.261708.com | www.944022.com | www.nd10.com | www.168583.com | www.27857.cc | www.365.hk | www.70475.com | www.079172.com | cp647.com | 973484.com | www.96357.com | www.43939.com | www.40541.com | www.69051.com | www.662790.com | www.03044.com | www.329215.com | www.597448.com | www.233000.com | www.110852.com | www.309398.com | 096963.com | 254283.com | www.978574.com | www.529038.com | www.866649.com | www.274518.com | www.402355.com | 吉利彩票www.66376f.com | 576142.com | www.874169.com | www.0712.tv | www.164655.com | www.219964.com | www.057101.com | www.cp3022.com | www.460193.com | www.443223.com | www.359192.com | www.83510.com | www.333427.com | www.015729.com | www.275619.com | www.607032.com | www.480033.com | www.604793.com | www.471344.com | www.185166.com | www.536093.com | www.086575.com | www.153128.com | www.150896.com | www.0101.la | www.9098.loan | 222677.com | www.985887.com | www.406589.com | www.200193.com | www.025593.com | 637275.com | www.xv56.com | www.233163.com | 976274.com | www.5177.org | www.rg56.com | www.92470.com | www.389052.com | www.637502.com | www.pk05.com | 668146.com | 975334.com | www.1517.cc | www.8622.cc | www.p26.org | www.hm07.com | www.29261.cc | www.61ik.com | www.87926.com | www.88uu.com | www.697101.com | www.733195.com | www.277136.com | www.039021.com | 博友彩www.832795.com | www.927378.com | 500彩票网www.65707p.com | www.oc82.com | www.n11.xyz | www.882013.com | 870042.com | www.305227.com | www.330657.com | 凤凰彩票www.77802l.com | www.47096.com | www.954708.com | www.31890.com | www.083869.com | 14192.com | 213022.com--217022.com | 352448.com | www.573886.com | 471144.com | 678142.com | 974358.com | 086883.com | www.773645.com | www.644422.com | www.451396.com | www.186427.com | www.006373.com | www.7960.org | www.57vf.com | 易购彩票www.234827.com | 533694.com | www.966202.com | www.739627.com | www.551755.com | www.589373.com | www.449305.com | www.226553.com | www.06767.com | www.69fv.com | www.900021.cc | www.02nu.com | www.93qi.com | www.xw27.com | 743553.com | 亚投彩票www.ya270.com | 982484.com | www.63dv.com | www.357891.com | www.654240.com | www.83nx.com | www.al38.com | www.yu96.com | 942389.com | www.6669.live | www.6015.net | www.28la.com | www.275231.com | www.805299.com | 57ao.com | www.771021.com | www.t53.com | www.15ny.com | www.217087.com | www.642622.com | 699.cc | www.cp5378.com | 026855.com | 545591.com | www.ul89.com | www.75ll.com | www.83wv.com | www.730088.com | www.6nf.com | www.958443.com | www.5461.xyz | 8812.cc | 13e彩票www.302029.com | www.089163.com | www.123371.com | www.858855.com | www.895368.com | www.724861.com | 彩多多www.1248i.cc | 314099.com | 343658.com | www.970495.com | 258091.com | www.991858.com | www.687519.com | www.82855.com | www.112040.com | www.691244.com | 福彩网www.603854.com | 优彩网www.987434.com | www.212951.com | www.036912.com | www.491473.com | www.727918.com | 034915.com | 846004.com | www.715235.com | 218914.com | 聚彩网www.707619.com | 239348.com | www.137647.com | www.758678.com | 221792.com | 598523.com | 903723.com | www.6190.pw | www.558477.com | www.641661.com | www.273728.com | www.4793.vip | www.72738.cc | www.610298.com | www.690812.com | www.744062.com | www.697069.com | www.654886.com | 28489.com | www.888528.com | www.657684.com | www.424414.com | www.608321.com | www.789641.com | www.kw53.com | www.bs14.com | 55580.com | www.132889.com | www.517095.com | www.61vx.com | www.621009.com | www.938768.com | www.528761.com | www.9107.cn | 659202.com | 920711.com | www.434567.cc | www.594132.com | www.878788.cc | www.132507.com | www.471677.com | www.313722.com | www.122671.com | www.38875.com | www.27528.com | www.1344.net | www.7034.cm | www.327846.com | www.542036.com | 868634.com | 560807.com | www.m15.org | www.cp434.com | www.2746.org | www.78er.cc | www.zt51.com | www.962133.com | www.735822.com | www.905691.com | www.429437.com | www.81185.cc | www.82hj.com | www.72uz.com | www.07td.com | www.011408.com | www.5370.in | www.128566.com | www.345324.com | www.857951.com | www.20352.com | www.4232.biz | 149069.com | 火星彩票www.hx6666.com | www.b64.cc | www.910982.com | www.764447.com | www.677647.com | www.570466.com | www.923592.com | www.fv26.com | www.ga39.com | www.75rg.com | www.ff86.com | www.52jc.com | www.0244.loan | www.044427.com | www.601846.com | www.345646.com | www.782900.com | 梦想彩票站www.43131k.com | 431156.com | 893362.com | 040268.com | www.797228.com | www.924995.com | www.288135.com | www.134911.com | www.85229.cc | www.036449.com | www.32118.com | www.414237.com | www.123204.com | 496030.com | 717969.com | www.794764.com | www.688655.com | www.717946.com | www.615627.com | www.706915.com | www.73589.com | www.417444.com | www.515129.com | www.843776.com | 851380.com | www.920769.com | 2308.com | www.862983.com | www.569120.com | www.cp5252.com | www.gy0.com | 410234.com | www.279904.com | www.090533.com | www.79977.cc | www.6285.biz | www.507184.com | www.8580.cn | www.159654.com | www.224851.com | www.762018.com | www.zu.com | www.3733.in | www.79zm.com | www.22033.cc | 106293.com | www.0142.org | www.2363.pw | www.1997.mobi | www.306412.com | 212441.com | 127961.com | bet007.com | www.674896.com | www.551251.com | 611656.com | 034268.com | www.9829.site | www.002980.com | www.jk73.com | www.891131.com | www.5dg.com | 彩天下www.196067.com | 824112.com | www.436655.com | www.gs93.com | 844806.com | www.682653.com | www.332380.com | www.444726.com | www.956175.com | 629675.com | 828076.com | 成功彩票www.le33.cc | www.118350.com | www.331072.com | www.815796.com | www.205468.com | www.115314.com | www.ti32.com | 网易彩票www.096wy.com | www.312895.com | www.125916.com | www.572470.com | 713623.com | www.919373.com | www.666768.com | www.38281.cc | 176035.com | www.974340.com | www.162328.com | www.287050.com | www.155451.com | www.96283.cc | www.979958.com | 160316.com | www.217.red | www.81864.com | www.313195.com | www.336505.com | www.948657.com | www.tv97.com | www.861918.com | www.567236.com | www.837526.com | www.713571.com | www.617625.com | www.99245.cc | www.9457.top | www.163932.cc | www.341885.com | www.966945.com | www.752151.com | www.365488.cc | www.483825.com | www.033970.com | www.1ne.cc | cai5577.com | www.590023.com | 000024.com | www.ny0.cc | www.cai289.com | www.465567.com | www.344336.com | www.139855.com | www.163123.com | www.004184.com | www.55sy.com | www.363623.com | www.678993.com | 大赢家彩票www.599842.com | 984452.com | www.028375.com | www.954198.com | www.hx83.cc | www.m21.site | vx1.cc | 873481.com | www.9796.top | www.368.cm | www.155264.com | www.132564.com | www.778954.com | www.222054.com | www.183563.com | www.pd7.com | www.197420.com | www.454124.com | www.755347.com | www.498131.com | www.346198.com | www.86457.com | www.26858.com | www.a85.cn | www.92sh.com | www.9985.loan | 791143.com | www.769379.com | 721389.com | 806050.com | www.zc05.cc | www.975947.com | www.537510.com | www.336002.com | www.21220.cc | www.8072.vip | www.841989.com | www.521146.com | 760163.com | www.255087.com | www.037757.com | www.9416.cc | www.p47.net | 837383.com | www.8111.vip | www.56692.cc | www.066655.com | www.11953.com | 361783.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.178670.com | www.398052.com | 049646.com | www.909163.com | 99彩票www.521787.com | www.1004.name | www.3023.pw | www.75716.cc | www.2795.biz | www.160662.com | www.98229.cc | www.37784.com | www.31283.com | www.5730.vip | www.633.biz | www.073466.com | www.310319.com | www.708364.com | www.419423.com | 947227.com | www.355769.com | www.529372.com | www.886687.com | 082025.com | www.929739.cc | www.108655.com | 037164.com | www.846690.com | www.va48.com | www.ek0.com | www.188289.com | 066596.com | www.870624.com | www.713276.com | www.006778.com | www.3792.win | www.050987.com | www.103484.com | www.52183.cc | www.43fh.com | www.440365.com | www.843377.com | www.744198.com | www.cp9311.com | www.75sk.com | www.954904.com | www.659531.com | www.w57.cn | www.34873.com | www.97808.com | www.0044.cn | www.5997.win | 873430.com | www.vq19.com | 088073.com | www.0pe.com | www.179288.com | www.702837.com | www.950271.com | www.10810.cc | www.095745.com | www.61lr.com | www.127454.com | www.814694.com | 430938.com | www.969510.com | 608899.cc | www.45rx.com | 126彩票网www.390126.com | 960243.com | www.747365.cc | www.618515.com | www.938678.com | www.541624.com | www.136563.com | www.130695.com | www.088799.com | www.38526.cc | www.46my.com | www.vw79.com | 598350.com | www.579558.com | www.179158.com | www.9048.biz | www.49op.com | www.871888.cc | 395393.cc | www.247662.com | www.17457.com | www.9085.org | www.93uk.com | www.301.biz | www.886573.com | www.972410.com | www.871138.com | 413311.com | 020951.com | 574404.com | www.05my.com | www.254455.com | www.751185.com | 650920.com | www.961103.com | www.898393.com | www.56559.cc | www.52298.cc | www.913023.com | www.544332.com | www.99735.cc | www.548522.com | www.98956.cc | www.053785.com | www.569671.com | www.9495.xyz | www.222925.com | www.75117.cc | www.rw19.com | www.625969.com | www.30955.com | www.0758.vip | www.078538.com | www.300500.cc | www.74746.com | 031250.com | www.855233.com | www.sj50.com | www.986247.com | www.cp9355.com | www.91778.com | www.1014.vip | www.u53.cn | www.09345.com | www.03lb.com | www.001041.com | www.8942.loan | www.1237.bid | www.9561.org | www.051144.com | 4239.biz | www.778130.com | www.534555.com | www.458606.com | www.153539.com | www.88719.com | www.1533.vip | www.474534.com | www.745809.com | www.771404.com | www.570011.com | www.355634.com | www.278110.com | www.547.xyz | www.210321.com | www.8989.cm | www.605047.com | www.800104.com | www.839717.com | www.334679.com | www.198270.com | www.57of.com | www.j95.xyz | 13e彩票www.807735.com | www.714238.com | www.017803.com | www.435202.com | 4381.biz | www.412649.com | www.63ze.com | www.39489.com | www.238920.com | 745468.com | www.929672.com | www.496638.com | www.102964.com | www.81lr.com | 026393.com | www.693469.com | www.654034.com | www.57731.com | www.83ac.com | www.163710.com | www.55734.com | www.56306.com | www.72486.com | www.222064.com | www.958633.com | www.kb93.com | www.002403.com | 817090.com | www.952645.com | www.733001.com | www.421448.com | www.274611.com | www.771268.com | www.368815.com | www.34942.com | www.095330.com | www.022092.com | www.503781.com | www.082223.com | www.in4.com | www.927960.com | www.005040.com | www.6868.link | www.11md.com | www.539153.com | www.974516.com | www.204476.com | www.262593.com | www.158394.com | www.15303.cc | www.29235.cc | www.47ns.com | www.bm26.com | www.96862.cc | 333663.cc | 9321.biz | www.86373.com | www.594313.com | www.30780.com | www.994828.com | www.007411.com | www.18jk.cc | www.038768.com | www.vq86.com | 680639.com | www.118775.com | www.4531.me | www.037698.com | www.6111.cn | www.26335.cc | www.723385.com | www.201234.com | www.959738.com | www.394999.com | www.li49.com | www.54mn.com | 七彩www.53900d.com | www.968.me | www.573119.com | 570083.com | 63tt.cc | www.200702.com | 046807.com | 480020.com | 023475.com | www.958933.com | www.341354.com | 505830.com | www.45gl.com | www.883859.com | www.163240.com | www.562195.com | www.836208.com | www.866128.com | 703774.com | www.798572.com | www.165729.com | 974243.com | www.879979.com | www.271869.com | www.8666.top | www.6021.cn | www.57bg.com | 网易彩票www.26163l.com | 269674.com | www.019471.com | www.85379.com | 809328.com | www.940206.com | www.105520.com | www.l62.cn | 770439.com | 855684.com | www.936153.com | www.261025.com | www.380002.com | www.317182.com | www.30163.cc | www.654.in | www.80226.cc | www.8765.net | www.41yj.com | www.94ix.com | www.553046.com | 480669.com | www.563855.com | www.873152.com | www.188242.com | 112994.com | www.995872.com | 243989.com | www.021969.com | www.11884.com | www.43lw.com | www.9555.date | www.722512.com | www.940815.com | www.630280.com | www.779177.com | www.5074.xyz | www.20641.com | www.021304.com | www.1535.wang | www.ag56.cc | www.yp26.com | 7880.la | www.029768.com | www.179558.com | www.920435.com | www.8979.biz | www.405504.com | www.500.cm | www.689114.com | 217023.com | www.796481.com | www.643816.com | www.889320.com | www.161986.com | www.553094.com | www.235170.com | www.866381.com | www.672537.com | 284395.com | www.cai6755.com | 187851.com | www.797757.com | www.2767.com | 796457.com | www.556722.com | 746477.com | www.9000.live | www.7888.top | www.168151.com | www.530674.com | www.1006.org | www.935624.com | www.731012.com | www.89684.com | 448358.com | www.812002.com | 297273.com | www.547576.com | www.549182.com | www.935832.com | www.631730.com | www.830711.com | www.450163.com | www.532879.com | www.576974.com | www.77526.cc | www.252983.com | www.49949.com | www.944622.com | www.763399.com | www.385262.com | www.381109.com | www.710698.com | www.205671.com | www.0709.vip | www.876263.com | www.633078.com | www.939319.com | www.619951.com | www.2788.mobi | 659403.com | www.118981.com | www.185577.com | www.318070.com | www.72486.com | www.3244.in | www.7wn.com | www.075690.com | www.39pk.com | 361551.com | 416696.com | www.994151.com | 761452.com | www.0303.com | 006971.com | www.48829.com | www.lr90.com | 吉利彩票www.80075k.com | 025787.com | www.02lm.com | www.1ez.com | www.30hn.com | 57095.com | www.025123.com | www.bv11.com | www.91pk.com | 091165.com | 220914.com | www.661639.com | 905444.com | www.300233.com | 710358.com | www.777729.com | 888911.cc | www.720880.com | www.972447.com | www.967541.com | www.538531.com | www.fs09.com | 137764.com | www.225090.com | www.089803.com | 706210.com | www.33vd.com | 505129.com | www.063271.com | www.721715.com | www.106337.com | www.907601.com | www.655054.com | www.953017.com | www.719768.com | www.227.live | 694550.com | 362527.com | www.456520.com | www.a39.top | www.330940.com | www.196582.com | www.576625.com | www.825188.com | www.50884.com | 彩票大家乐www.21202u.com | www.789206.com | 42832.com | www.na1.cc-na1.cc | 769575.com | www.775904.com | 947280.com | www.792875.com | www.384612.com | www.435620.com | 2800.wang | www.451298.com | www.95279.com | www.2727.win | 436455.com | 75328.com | www.960544.com | www.876452.com | 91838.com--91838.com | www.5193.xyz | www.021481.com | www.098859.com | www.xy2.cc | 052575.com | www.617414.com | 509338.com | www.380042.com | www.46767.com | www.047740.com | www.878517.com | www.669366.com | www.127092.com | 139294.com | www.840813.com | 533629.com | www.883040.com | www.45cq.com | 971536.com | www.082422.com | www.123394.com | www.669697.com | www.038656.com | www.rs6.cc | www.8780.in | 850046.com | 577428.com | 671494.com | www.422515.com | www.400207.com | www.9350.vip | www.1005.cm | www.45yv.com | 五星彩票www.5xcj.com | www.983123.com | www.653865.com | 470211.com | www.838793.com | www.46093.com | www.uc04.cc | www.936629.com | cp0418.com | www.1397.win | www.761214.com | www.581590.com | www.119553.com | www.350120.com | www.237735.com | www.19345.cc | www.16868.com | www.678824.com | www.566514.com | www.609701.com | www.255929.com | www.wa50.com | www.341163.com | www.846205.com | www.368809.com | www.703249.com | 97809.com | www.22222.com | www.5823.cn | 751464.com | 1340.xyz | www.mq41.com | www.518746.com | www.212278.com | 848339.com | www.997195.com | www.450504.com | www.974645.com | www.7712.cm | www.700486.com | www.ql53.com | www.686948.com | www.98763.cc | www.21at.com | www.440636.com | www.313530.com | www.42rj.com | www.801596.com | www.123261.com | 亿彩网www.296676.com | www.589676.com | www.088331.com | www.92ms.com | 885528.com | www.898763.com | www.3162.win | 523992.com | www.9832.in | www.61107.com | www.771197.com | www.676593.com | www.81851.com | www.rg58.cc | www.984338.com | www.78al.com | www.788882.com | www.663.win | www.mq57.com | www.7799.pw | www.571749.com | www.529996.com | www.80689.com | www.08gt.com | www.602907.com | www.888710.com | 6073